Tomate (solanum lycopersicum)
Tomato(Solanum lycopersicum L.), from the Solanaceae family, is native to northwestern South America and offers health benefits. Tomato is widely grown for its fruit. The term tomato also refers to its fruit.
The Aztecs used the tomato in their kitchen at the time of the conquest of the Aztec empire by the Spaniards who brought the plant to Europe. From there, the tomato was introduced to other parts of the world colonized by Europeans during the 16th century. Tomatoes have become an essential part of gastronomy in many countries, especially in the Mediterranean basin.
Of great economic importance, it is the subject of much scientific research. It is considered a model plant in genetics. It gave rise to the first genetically modified plant authorized for cultivation and marketed ephemerally in the United States in the 1990s. Genetically engineered tomatoes were developed and, although they are no longer commercially available today, they have been in the past. Scientists continue to develop tomatoes with new traits not found in natural crops, such as increased resistance to pests or environmental stresses. Other projects aim to enrich tomatoes with substances that may offer health benefits.
Main source: wikipedia
Nutrients, phytonutrients, minerals and vitamins
As for the average nutritional values of the tomato, here they are per 100 grams:
- Calories: 18
- Water: 95%.
- Protein: 0.9 grams
- Carbohydrates: 3.9 grams
- Sugar: 2.6 grams
- Fiber: 1.2 grams
- Fat: 0.2 grams
It is worth noting that tomatoes are very low in carbohydrates, which make up about 4% of raw tomatoes. This equates to about 5 grams of carbohydrates for an average tomato of 125 grams. In addition, simple sugars, such as glucose and fructose, account for nearly 70% of its carbohydrate content.
Tomatoes are a good source of fiber in the form of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin, most of which are insoluble.
When it comes to vitamins and minerals, tomatoes contain a lot of vitamin C, vitamin K1 and vitamin B9 known as folate. An average tomato contains about 25% of the recommended daily amount of vitamin C. It also has essential minerals such as potassium. The vitamin and plant compound content of tomatoes can vary greatly depending on the variety and sampling periods.
Les principaux composés végétaux présents dans les tomates sont les suivants :
Lycopene, a red pigment and antioxidant. Beta-carotene, which the body converts into vitamin A and naringenin, a colorless flavanone found in the skin of tomatoes that has been shown to decrease inflammation and protect against various diseases in mice.
On the acid side, we find in tomatoes a powerful antioxidant compound, chlorogenic acid that can lower blood pressure in people with high levels
Finally, it is its chlorophylls and carotenoids like lycopene that are responsible for the rich color of the tomato. When the maturation process begins, chlorophyll (green) is degraded and carotenoids (red) are synthesized.
Sources: Health Line, Passeport Santé, Journal of Medicine and others
Possible Health Benefits of Tomato
Studies show that tomatoes and tomato products can reduce the risk of heart disease and several cancers. This fruit is also beneficial for skin health. It can at least in part protect against sunburn.
Indeed, studies show that in middle-aged men, there is a link between low levels of lycopene and beta-carotene in the blood and an increased risk of heart attack and stroke.
On the cholesterol side, evidence from clinical trials (on humans) suggests that lycopene may help reduce LDL (bad cholesterol).
Inflammation and blood clotting
Clinical studies on tomato products indicate benefits against inflammation. In addition, its antioxidants intervene on the markers of oxidative stress. Tomato consumption would help protect the inner layer of blood vessels and decrease the risk of blood clotting
Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells that spread beyond their normal limits and often invade other parts of the body. Observational studies have noted links between tomato consumption and a decrease in the incidence of prostate, lung and stomach cancers. Researchers give these virtues to lycopene but more high-quality clinical studies are needed to confirm the cause of these benefits.
Other studies on women tend to show that high concentrations of carotenoids found abundantly in tomatoes can protect against breast cancer. As with lycopene, further high-quality clinical studies are needed to confirm the cause of these benefits.
Tomatoes are considered beneficial for skin health. Tomato foods rich in lycopene and other plant compounds can protect against sunburn. According to one study, people who ingested 40 grams of tomato paste providing 16 mg of lycopene with olive oil every day for 10 weeks had 40% less sunburn.
Although tomato allergy is rare, people who are allergic to grass pollen are more likely to also have food allergy to pollen syndrome or oral allergy syndrome.
Oral allergy syndrome is an allergic reaction to certain proteins in a range of fruits, vegetables and/or nuts. The syndrome is called oral allergy syndrome because it usually affects the mouth and throat. It is manifested by itching in the mouth, an irritated throat or swelling of the mouth or throat.