Ginseng à cinq folioles / Ginseng d’Amérique/ Panax quinquefolius

Généralités

Le ginseng américain (Panax quinquefolius) est aussi connu sous le nom de ginseng à cinq folioles/étoiles. Plante des forêts tempérées, le ginseng américain (Panax quinquefolius) est originaire des riches forêts de feuillus du Canada et de la moitié est des États-Unis jusqu’à la limite de la Floride. Le Ginseng d’Amérique pousse sur des sols drainés riches en humus. Un plant de ginseng peut mesurer de 20 à 70 centimètres de hauteur. Le ginseng à cinq folioles fleurit en juin. Un plant de ginseng à cinq folioles peut vivre jusqu’à 60 ans. Le ginseng produit en milieu naturel est de meilleure qualité que celui produit de façon intensive faites en sous-bois ou en champs. Les risques associés à la culture du ginseng sont grands et cette dernière est très exigeante. Les taux de succès est très variable et la nécessité de suivre les règles de culture est obligatoire.

Le Ginseng à cinq folioles a été découvert en Amérique au début des années 1700. Les Amérindiens se servaient des racines de ginseng pour préparer leurs remèdes traditionnels. Ce n’est qu’en 1715 qu’un prêtre Jésuite du Québec aurait identifié le ginseng d’Amérique comme l’équivalent nord-américain du ginseng oriental (Panax ginseng). Le bon jésuite eut alors l’idée de l’exporter vers Hong Kong. Étant très apprécié en Asie pour ses différents usages, son initiative commerciale fut si exaucé qu’un solide commerce d’exportation de racines séchées vers la Chine se mis en place et rivalisa rapidement avec le commerce des fourrures.

Toutes les racines étaient récoltées des forêts. La sur cueillette de cette plante en milieu naturel durant cette période faste de commerce avec Hong Kong  occasionna sa quasi disparition. Petit à petit, les quantités de Ginseng naturelles ont diminué et quasi disparu. En raison de la cueillette excessive et illégale et de la destruction de son habitat, cette espèce a été inscrite sur la liste des espèces en voie de disparition à l’échelle nationale. Au Québec l’espèce est considérée comme menacé tandis qu’en Ontario on la classe parmi les espèces en voie de disparition. Aujourd’hui, la cueillette, l’importation et l’exportation du ginseng à cinq folioles au Canada sont réglementées et soigneusement surveillées. Seul le commerce du ginseng à cinq folioles cultivé est légal au Canada.  Environ 85 % des racines de ginseng produites en Amérique du Nord sont destinées au marché asiatique. Au sein de ce marché, on distingue nettement le ginseng nord-américain du ginseng chinois sur le plan des vertus médicinales. Au Canada, on exporte principalement des racines cultivées en champ (2 670 000 kg pour un total de 70 219 771 $ CAN en 2008) (2).

Des ginsengs qui n’en sont pas

On donne souvent le nom « ginseng » à des plantes qui n’en sont pas. Le ginseng de Sibérie (Eleutherococcus senticosus – éleuthérocoque), le ginseng des femmes ou l’angélique chinoise (Angelica sinensis),  le ginseng du Brésil (Pfaffia paniculata – suma), le ginseng péruvien (Lepdium meyenii – maca) et le ginseng indien (Withania somnifera  ashwagandha) ne font pas parti du genre botanique Panax. Même si ces plantes ont une valeur médicinale, on ne saurait les assimiler au ginseng et leur attribuer les effets décrits pour le ginseng à 5 étoiles (panax quinquefolius). Il suffit de comparer avec la fiche du maca pour constater la différence.

Ses phytonutriments et ses minéraux

L’action médicinale du ginseng est attribuée à sa classe unique de composés appelés ginsenosides  (molécules qui correspondent ni plus ni moins au système immunitaire de la plante) de la famille des saponines.

 

Ses vertus médicinales

La racine de ginseng est largement utilisée dans le monde pour ses effets adaptogènes, immunomodulateurs (traitement qui stimule ou freine les réactions du système immunitaire du corps), antinéoplasiques (médicament destiné à bloquer la prolifération des cellules cancéreuses), cardiovasculaires, endocriniens (secrétion d’ormones) et ergogéniques (substances qui augmentent les performances ou la capacité de travail et qui ont un potentiel de devenir dopantes). Par contre, certains ergogéniques ne sont pas interdits, comme les protéines ou la créatine.  La racine du ginseng quinquefolius est réputé pour abaisser le taux de sucre et le taux de cholestérol dans le sang, de protéger contre le stress, d’améliorer la force et de promouvoir la relaxation. Il est classé par la Food and Drug Administration (FDA) comme une «nourriture sûre généralement reconnue» (GRAS). Voici ce que Santé Canada reconnait (usages et fins recommandés) au Ginseng quinquefolius.

  • Utilisé en médecine traditionnelle chinoise (MTC) pour l’insuffisance du Qi et du Yin, pour la chaleur interne, pour la toux, pour la présence de sang dans le mucus, pour le feu lors du syndrome d’insuffisance, pour la dysphorie et la fatigue, pour la soif, la bouche et la gorge sèches
  • Utilisé en phytothérapie/herboristerie comme thérapie de soutien pour aider au contrôle du taux de glucose
  • Utilisé traditionnellement en phytothérapie/herboristerie pour aider à soulager la nervosité (sédatif léger)
  • Utilisé traditionnellement en phytothérapie/herboristerie pour aider à soulager la dyspepsie nerveuse / pour aider à la digestion dans les cas de nervosité et/ou de stress
  • Utilisé en phytothérapie/herboristerie comme adaptogène pour aider au maintien de la santé du système immunitaire

Ses vertus sexuelles

De nombreux végétaux sont censés réveiller le désir sexuels ou encore aider le côté physique à atteindre les performances attendues.  Certains d’entre eux font partis de notre alimentation tels l’artichaut, le gingembre, la vanille, le chocolat.  D’autres tels le Ginseng nécessitent une certaine préparation pour être consommés. Cependant, à l’exception du maca reconnu par Santé Canada pour avoir certains effets sur le bien-être sexuel, la science occidentale n’a jamais pu démontrer ces faits.  Par contre, dans la culture asiatique plus de cents espèces de végétaux et aussi de substances animales tel la corne de rhinocéros et aussi le bois de velours sont largement acceptés soit comme stimulant sexuel soit mental soit physique.

Pour certains fruits et légumes tels l’épinard, la betterave, le melon d’eau, la pomme grenade et le brocoli, l’explication est plus simple, leur concentration en nitrate. Les corps caverneux du pénis et du clitoris sont une petite boule spongieuses de très petits nerfs entourés de vaisseaux sanguins.  Chez l’homme, le corps caverneux est situé dans le pénis à partir de sa base (un peu comme une chambre à air). Chez la femme, il entoure le clitoris. Durant les périodes sexuelles, il s’engorge de sang et devient actif. Sa stimulation dépend de la relaxation des muscles génitaux. L’oxyde nitrique (NO) et son métabolite le GMP cyclique influe directement sur le mécanisme érectile et chez l’homme et chez la femme. Chez l’homme son action entraîne le relâchement des muscles lisses du pénis, ce qui a pour effet de faciliter le passage du sang en provenance des veines péniennes et d’entraîner le gonflement de la verge. Plus la présence de GMP est marquée et plus l’érection sera durable et forte. Chez la femme un phénomène similaire mais moins fort se produit au niveau du clitoris.

Monographie Santé Canada

Date: 2015-07-06

Nom de la BDIPSN

Panax quinquefolius

Nom(s) propre(s)

Panax quinquefolius L. (Araliaceae)

Nom(s) commun(s)

  • Ginseng à cinq folioles
  • Ginseng d’Amérique

Matière d’origine

Racine

Panax quinquefolius est une espèce en péril à l’état sauvage ; la seule matière d’origine acceptable est la racine des plantes cultivées (EC 2009). Voir les spécifications pour plus de détails.

Voie d’administration

Forme posologique(s)

Orale

  • Les aliments ou les formes posologiques semblables aux aliments telles que les barres, les gommes à mâcher ou les breuvages, sont exclus de cette monographie.
  • Les formes posologiques pharmaceutiques acceptables comprennent, notamment les bandelettes, les capsules, les comprimés, les formes posologiques à croquer (p. ex. les comprimés, les gélifiées), les liquides ou les poudres.

Usage(s) ou fin(s) recommandé(s)

Enoncé(s) précisant ce qui suit:

  • Utilisé en médecine traditionnelle chinoise (MTC) pour l’insuffisance du Qi et du Yin, pour la chaleur interne, pour la toux, pour la présence de sang dans le mucus, pour le feu lors du syndrome d’insuffisance, pour la dysphorie et la fatigue, pour la soif, la bouche et la gorge sèches
  • Utilisé en phytothérapie/herboristerie comme thérapie de soutien pour aider au contrôle du taux de glucose
  • Utilisé traditionnellement en phytothérapie/herboristerie pour aider à soulager la nervosité (sédatif léger)
  • Utilisé traditionnellement en phytothérapie/herboristerie pour aider à soulager la dyspepsie nerveuse / pour aider à la digestion dans les cas de nervosité et/ou de stress
  • Utilisé en phytothérapie/herboristerie comme adaptogène pour aider au maintien de la santé du système immunitaire

Dose(s)

Adultes:

MTC
Préparation: Décoction

Dose(s): 2.4 – 9 Grammes par jour, racine séchée

Mode d’emploi: Préparer la racine séchée en décoction


Taux de glucose; Sédatif léger; Nervosité; Système immunitaire

Préparation: Sec, poudre, décoction et infusion + extraits liquides + extraits seches, tinture, extrait fluide.

Dose(s): 0.5 – 12 Grammes par jour, racine séchée

Durée d’utilisation

Énoncé non requis

Mention de risques

Enoncé(s) précisant ce qui suit: 

Précaution(s) et mise(s) en garde:

  • Si vous avez le diabète, consulter un praticien de soins de santé avant d’en faire l’usage
  • Si vous prenez des anticoagulants ou de la digoxine, consulter un praticien de soins de santé avant d’en faire l’usage

Contre-indication(s):
Énoncé non requis

Réaction(s) indésirable(s) connue(s):
Énoncé non requis

Ingrédients non médicinaux

Doivent être choisis de la Base de données d’ingrédients de produits de santé naturels actuelle et doivent respecter les restrictions définies dans la base de données. 

Spécifications

  • Les spécifications du produit fini doivent être établies conformément aux exigences décrites dans le Guide de référence sur la qualité des produits de santé naturels de la DPSN.
  • L’ingrédient médicinal doit être conforme aux exigences mentionnées dans la Base de données d’ingrédients de produits de santé naturels (BDIPSN).
  • L’ingrédient médicinal peut être conforme aux spécifications énoncées dans les monographies American Ginseng, Powdered American Ginseng de la pharmacopée américaine (USP 38).
  • Une preuve d’achat ou un permis pour posséder la plante cultivée Panax quinquefolius doit être disponible puisque la plante est une espèce en péril à l’état sauvage : (i) Panax quinquefolius est protégée au Canada par la Loi sur les espèces en péril (LEP). Selon la section 32(2) de cette loi, il est interdit de posséder, de collectionner, d’acheter, de vendre ou d’échanger un individu – notamment partie d’un individu ou produit qui en provient – d’une espèce sauvage inscrite comme espèce disparue du pays, en voie de disparition ou menacée (JC 2015), (ii) Panax quinquefolius est protégée au Québec par la Loi sur les espèces menacées ou vulnérables (LEMV). Cette loi interdit de nuire aux individus de cette espèce, d’en posséder, d’en faire le commerce et de perturber leur habitat (EC 2015).

Références citées

  • Assinewe VA. Phytochemical variation and immunopharmacology of Panax quinquefolius L. (American Ginseng) [Thèse de doctorat]. Ottawa (ON): University of Ottawa; 2001.
  • Bartram T. Bartram’s Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine: The Definitive Guide to the Herbal Treatments of Diseases. New York (NY): Marlowe & Company; 1995.
  • Bensky D, Gamble A. Chinese Herbal Medicine: Materia Medica. Revised Edition. Seattle (WA): Eastland Press, Inc; 1993.
  • Brinker F. Online Updates and Additions to Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions, 3e édition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 2010. [Consulté le 4 juin 2015]. Disponible en ligne à : http://www.eclecticherb.com/emp/updatesHCDI.html
  • Dascalu A, Sievenpiper JL, Jenkins AL, Stavro MP, Leiter LA, Arnason JT, Vuksan V. Five batches representative of Ontario-grown American ginseng root produce comparable reductions of postprandial glycemia in healthy individuals. Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 2007 85(9):856-864.
  • Dasgupta A, Kang E, Olsen M, Actor JK, Datta P. Interference of Asian, American, and Indian (Ashwagandha) ginseng in serum digoxin measurements by a fluorescence polarization immunoassay can be minimized by using a new enzyme-linked chemiluminescent immunosorbent or turbidimetric assay. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine 2007. 131(4):619-621.
  • Ellingwood F. American Materia Medica, Therapeutics and Pharmacognosy. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998 [Réimpression de la publication de 1919].
  • Elmer GW, Lafferty WE, Tyree PT, Lind BK. 2007. Potential interactions between complementary/alternative products and conventional medicines in a Medicare population. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 41(10):1617-1624.
  • Felter HW, Lloyd JU. King’s American Dispensatory, Volume 1, 18e édition. Sandy (OR): Eclectic Medical Publications; 1983 [Réimpression de la publication de 1898].
  • Godfrey A, Saunders PR, Barlow K, Gilbert C, Gowan M, Smith F. Principles and Practices of Naturopathic Botanical Medicine. Volume 1: Botanical Medicine Monographs. Toronto (ON): CCNM Press; 2010.
  • Hoffmann D. 2003. Medical Herbalism: The Science and Practice of Herbal Medicine. Rochester (VT): Healing Arts Press.
  • JC 2015: Ministère de la Justice Canada. Loi sur les espèces en péril . Ottawa (ON) : Ministère de la Justice Canada. [Consulté le 4 juin 2009]. Disponible en ligne à : http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/fra/acts/S-15.3/index.html.
  • King ML, Adler SR, Murphy LL. 2006. Extraction-dependent effects of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on human breast cancer cell proliferation and estrogen receptor activation. Integrative Cancer Therapies 5(3):236-243.
  • Lust J. The Herb Book. New York (NY): Bantam Books Incorporated, published by arrangement with Benedict Lust Publications; 1974.
  • McGuffin M, Kartesz JT, Leung AY, Tucker AO, éditeurs. 2000. Herbs of Commerce, 2e édition. Austin (TX): American Herbal Products Association.
  • PPRC: Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China, Volume 1, English edition 2015. Beijing (CN): The State Pharmacopoeia Commission of the People’s Republic of China.
  • Upton R, editor. American Herbal Pharmacopoeia and Therapeutic Compendium: American ginseng Root (Panax quinquefolius L.) – Standards of Analysis, Quality Control, and Therapeutics. Santa Cruz (CA): American Herbal Pharmacopoeia; 2012.
  • USDA 2005: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) [Online database]. 2005. Panax quinquefolius. Beltsville (MD): National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. [Accessed 2015 June 4]. Available from: http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl.
  • USP 38: United States Pharmacopeia and the National Formulary (USP 38 – NF 33). Rockville (MD): The United States Pharmacopeial Convention; 2015.
  • Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Xu Z. 2000b. Similar postprandial glycemic reductions with escalation of dose and administration time of American ginseng in type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care 23(9):1221-1226.
  • Vuksan V, Stavro MP, Sievenpiper JL, Koo VY, Wong E, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Francis T, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Xu Z. 2000c. American ginseng improves glycemia in individuals with normal glucose tolerance: effect of dose and time escalation. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 19(6):738-744.
  • Vuksan V, Xu Z, Jenkins AL, Belgan U, Sievenpiper JL, Leiter LA, Josse RG, Stavro MP. 2000a. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium L.) improves long-term glycemic control in type 2 diabetes: double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial. Diabetes 49 (Suppl.1):A95.
  • Wren RC. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (UK): Potter and Clark; 1956.
  • Yuan CS, Wei G, Dey L, Karrison T, Nahlik L, Maleckar S, Kasza K, Ang-Lee M, Moss J. 2004. American ginseng reduces warfarin’s effect in healthy patients. Annals of internal medicine 141(1):23-27.

Références examinées

  • Adams LL, Gatchel RJ. 2000. Complementary and alternative medicine: applications and implications for cognitive functioning in elderly populations. Alternative therapies in health and medicine 7(2):52-61.
  • Adimoelja A. 2000. Phytochemicals and the breakthrough of traditional herbs in the management of sexual dysfunctions. International Journal of Andrology 23(Suppl 2):82-84.
  • Allen JD, McLung J, Nelson AG, Welsch M. 1998. Ginseng supplementation does not enhance healthy young adults’ peak aerobic exercise performance. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 17(5):462-466
  • Anderson GD, Rosito G, Mohustsy MA, Elmer GW. 2003. Drug interaction potential of soy extract and Panax ginseng. The Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 43(6):643-648.
  • Ang-Lee MK, Moss J, Yuan C-S. 2001. Herbal medicines and perioperative care. The Journal of the American Medical Association 286(2):208-216.
  • Attele AS, Wu JA, Yuan CS. 1999. Ginseng pharmacology: multiple constituents and multiple actions. Biochemical Pharmacology 58(11):1685-1693.
  • Attele AS, Zhou Y-P, Xie J-T, Wu JA, Zhang L, Dey L, Pugh W, Rue PA, Polonsky KS, Yuan C-S. 2002. Antidiabetic effects of Panax ginseng berry extract and the identification of an effective component. Diabetes 51:1851-1858.
  • Awang DV. 1991. Maternal use of ginseng and neonatal androgenization. The Journal of the American Medical Association 266(3):363.
  • Bahrke MS, Morgan WP. 1994. Evaluation of the ergogenic properties of ginseng. Sports Medicine 18(4):229-248
  • Bao H Y, Zhang J, Yeo SJ, Myung CS, Kim HM, Kim JM, Park JH, Cho J, Kang JS. 2005. Memory enhancing and neuroprotective effects of selected ginsenosides. Archives of Pharmacal Research 28(3):335-342.
  • Barnes J, Anderson LA, Philipson JD. 2007. Herbal Medicines, 3e édition. London (GB): Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Barton DL, Soori GS, Bauer BA, Sloan JA, Johnson PA, Figueras C, Duane S, Mattar B, Liu H, Atherton PJ, Christensen B, Loprinzi CL. Pilot study of Panax quinquefolius (American ginseng) to improve cancer-related fatigue: a randomized, double-blind, dose-finding evaluation: NCCTG trial N03CA. Support Care in Cancer 2010;18(2):179-187.
  • BHP 1983: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Cowling (GB): British Herbal Medical Association; 1983.
  • BHP 1996: British Herbal Pharmacopoeia. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medical Association; 1996.
  • Biondo PD, Goruk S, Ruth MR, O’Connell E, Field CJ. 2008. Effect of CVT-E002 (COLD-fX) versus a ginsenoside extract on systemic and gut-associated immune function. International Immunopharmacology 8(8):1134-42.
  • Biondo PD, Robbins SJ, Walsh JD, McCargar LJ, Harber VJ, Field CJ. 2008. A randomized controlled crossover trial of the effect of ginseng consumption on the immune response to moderate exercise in healthy sedentary men. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism 33(5): 966-975.
  • Block KI, Mead MN. 2003. Immune system effects of echinacea, ginseng, and astragalus: a review. Integrative Cancer Therapies 2(3):247-267.
  • Blumenthal M, Busse W, Goldberg A, Gruenwald J, Hall T, Riggins C, Rister R, éditeurs. The Complete German Commission E Monographs: Therapeutic Guide to Herbal Medicines. Austin (TX): American Botanical Council; 1998.
  • Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinkmann J, éditeurs. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Boston (MA): Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000.
  • BP 2003: British Pharmacopoeia Commission. British Pharmacopoeia. London ( UK ): Her Majesty’s Stationary Office; 2003.
  • BP 2015: British Pharmacopoeia 2015, Volume II. London (GB): The Stationary Office.
  • Bradley PR, editor. 1992. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 1. Bournemouth (GB): British Herbal Medicine Association.
  • Bradley PR, éditeur. British Herbal Compendium: A Handbook of Scientific Information on Widely Used Plant Drugs, Volume 2. Bournemouth (UK): British Herbal Medicine Association; 2006.
  • Briggs CJ, Briggs GL. 1998. Herbal products in depression therapy. Canadian Pharmacists Journal/Revue Des Pharmaciens Du Canada Novembre:40-44.
  • Bucci LR. 2000. Selected herbs and human exercise performance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(Suppl 2):624S-636S
  • Capital Health. 2003. Professional Reference Guide: Herbal – Drug Interactions. Canada.: Mediscript Communications Inc.
  • Carai MAM, Agabio R, Bombardelli E, Bourov I, Gessa GL, Lobina C, Morazzoni P, Pani M, Reali R, Vacca G, Colombo G. 2000. Potential use of medicinal plants in the treatment of alcoholism. Fitoterapia 71:S38-S42.
  • Cardinal BJ, Engels HJ. 2001. Ginseng does not enhance psychological well-being in healthy, young adults: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Journal of the American Dietetic Association 101(6):655-660
  • Caso Marasco A, Vargas Ruiz R, Salas Villagomez A, Begoña Infante C. 1996. Double-blind study of a multivitamin complex supplemented with ginseng extract. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 22(6):323-329.
  • Chan LY, Chiu PY, Lau TK. 2003. An in-vitro study of ginsenoside Rb(1)-induced teratogenicity using a whole rat embryo culture model. Human Reproduction 18:2166-2168.
  • Chang Kiu Moon , Kyl Soon Sim, Soo Hwan Lee, Kwang Sik Park, Yeo Pyo Yun, Bae-Jin Ha and Chong-Chul Lee. 1983. Antitumor activity of some phytobased polysaccharides and their effects on the immune function. Pharmaceutical Society of Korea 6(2):123-131
  • Chen F, Eckman EA, Eckman CB. 2006. Reductions in levels of the Alzheimer’s amyloid beta peptide after oral administration of ginsenosides. The FASEB journal: official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 20(8):1269-1271.
  • Coleman CI, Hebert JH, Reddy P. 2003. The effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 28(1):5-15
  • Cui Y, Shu XO, Gao Y, Wen W, Ruan ZX, Jin F, Zheng W. 2004. Use of complementary and alternative medicine by Chinese women with breast cancer. Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 85:263-270.
  • Cui Y, Shu XO, Gao YT, Cai H, Tao MH, Zheng W. 2006. Association of ginseng use with survival and quality of life among breast cancer patients. American Journal of Epidemiology 163(7):645-653.
  • Diamond WJ. The Clinical Practice of Complementary, Alternative, and Western Medicine. Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press LLC; 2001.
  • Duda RB, Taback B, Kessel B, Dooley DD, Yang H, Marchiori J, Slomovic BM, Alvarez JG. 1996. pS2 expression induced by American ginseng in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Annals of Surgical Oncology 3(6):515-520.
  • Duda RB, Zhong Y, Navas V, Li MZ, Toy BR, Alavarez JG. 1999. American ginseng and breast cancer therapeutic agents synergistically inhibit MCF-7 breast cancer cell growth. Journal of Surgical Oncology 72(4):230-239.
  • Elam JL, Carpenter JS, Shu XO, Boyapati S, Friedmann-Gilchrist J. 2006. Methodological issues in the investigation of ginseng as an intervention for fatigue. Clinical nurse specialist CNS 20(4):183-189.
  • Ellis JM, Reddy P. 2002. Effects of Panax ginseng on quality of life. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 36(3):375-379
  • Engels HJ, Fahlman MM, Wirth JC. 2003. Effects of ginseng on secretory IgA, performance, and recovery from interval exercise. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 35(4):690-696
  • Engels HJ, Kolokouri I, Cieslak TJ, Wirth JC. 2001. Effects of ginseng supplementation on supramaximal exercise performance and short-term recovery. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research 15(3):290-295
  • Ernst E, Cassileth BR. 1999. How useful are unconventional cancer treatments? European Journal of Cancer 35(11):1608-1613.
  • Ernst E. The risk-benefit profile of commonly used herbal therapies: Ginkgo, St. John’s Wort, Ginseng, Echinacea, Saw Palmetto, and Kava. Annals of Internal Medicine 2002;136(1):42-53.
  • ESCOP 2003: ESCOP Monographs: The Scientific Foundation for Herbal Medicinal Products, 2e édition. Exeter (UK): European Scientific Cooperative on Phytotherapy and Thieme; 2003.
  • Findeis MA. 2000. Approaches to discovery and characterization of inhibitors of amyloid-beta-peptide polymerization. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1502:76-84.
  • Fugh-Berman A, Ernst E. 2001. Herb-drug interactions: Review and assessment of report reliability. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 52(5):587-595
  • Fugh-Berman A. 2000. Herb-drug interactions. Lancet 355:134-138
  • Gaffney B, Hügel H, Rich P. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sciences. 2001;70(4):431-442.
  • Gray SL, Lackey BR, Tate PL, Riley MB, Camper ND. 2004. Mycotoxins in root extracts of American and Asian ginseng bind estrogen receptors alpha and beta. Experimental Biology and Medicine 229(6):560-568.
  • Greenblatt DJ, von Moltke LL. 2006. Interaction of warfarin with drugs, natural substances, and foods. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 45(2):127-132.
  • Greenspan EM. 1983. Ginseng and vaginal bleeding. Journal of the American Medical Association 249(15):2018 (Letter).
  • Gross D, Shenkman Z, Bleiberg B, Dayan M, Gittelson M, Efrat R. 2002. Ginseng improves pulmonary functions and exercise capacity in patients with COPD. Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease 57(5-6):242-246
  • Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, Williams DK, Gentry WB, Cui Y, Ang CY. 2002. Cytochrome P450 phenotypic ratios for predicting herb-drug interactions in humans. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 72(3):276-287.
  • Gurley BJ, Gardner SF, Hubbard MA, Williams DK, Gentry WB, Cui Y, Ang CY. 2005. Clinical assessment of effects of botanical supplementation on cytochrome P450 phenotypes in the elderly: St John’s wort, garlic oil, Panax ginseng and Ginkgo biloba. Drugs & Aging 22(6):525-539
  • Guyton KZ, Kensler TW. 2002. Prevention of liver cancer. Current Oncology Reports 4(6):464-70. Review
  • Gyllenhaal C, Merritt SL, Peterson SD, Block KI, Gochenour T. 2000. Efficacy and safety of herbal stimulants and sedatives in sleep disorders. Sleep Medicine Reviews 4(2):229-251
  • Han KH, Choe SC, Kim HS, Sohn DW, Nam KY, Oh BH, Lee MM, Park YB, Choi YsS, Seo JD, Lee YW. Effect of red ginseng on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and white coat hypertension. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 1998;26(2):199-209.
  • Harkey MR, Henderson GL, Gershwin ME, Stern JS, Hackman RM. Variability in commercial ginseng products: an analysis of 25 preparations. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2001;73:1101-1106.
  • Hartley DE, Elsabagh S, File SE. 2004. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks’ treatment in post-menopausal women. Nutritional Neuroscience 7(5-6):325-333
  • Heck AM, DeWitt BA, Lukes AL. Potential interactions between alternative therapies and warfarin. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 2000;57(13):1221-1227.
  • Hofseth LJ, Wargovich MJ. 2007. Inflammation, cancer, and targets of ginseng. Journal of Nutrition 137(1 Suppl):183S-185S
  • Hong B, Ji YH, Hong JH, Nam KY, Ahn TY. 2002. A double-blind crossover study evaluating the efficacy of Korean red ginseng in patients with erectile dysfunction: a prelimary report. The Journal of Urology 168(5):2070-2073
  • Hu C, Kitts D. 2001 Free Radical Scavenging Capacity as Related to Antioxidant Activity and Ginsenoside Composition of Asian and North American Ginseng Extracts. Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society 78(3):249
  • Hu SY. 1976. The genus Panax (ginseng) in Chinese medicine. Economic Botany 30:14
  • Integrated Taxonomic Information System (IT IS) on-line database. Panax quinquefolius . [Accessed 2015 June 4]. Available from: http://www.itis.gov/servlet/SingleRpt/SingleRpt?search_topic=TSN&search_value=29399.
  • Izzo AA, Ernst E. 2001. Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review. Drugs 61(15):2163-2175.
  • Janetzki K, Morreale AP. 1997. Probable interaction between warfarin and ginseng. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 54(6):692-693
  • Jellin JM. Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database: American ginseng. Stockton (CA): Therapeutic Research Faculty; 1995-2015. [Accessed 2015June 4]. Available from: http://naturaldatabase.therapeuticresearch.com/nd/Search.aspx?cs=CEPDA&s=ND&pt=100&sh=1&id=967.
  • Ji ZN, Dong TT, Ye WC, Choi RC, Lo CK, Tsim KW. 2006. Ginsenoside Re attenuate beta-amyloid and serum-free induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 107:48-52
  • Jiang X, Williams KM, Liauw WS, Ammit AJ, Roufogalis BD, Duke CC, Day RO, McLachlan AJ. 2004. Effect of St John’s wort and ginseng on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of warfarin in healthy subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 57(5):592-599.
  • Jin Y, Kotakadi VS, Ying L, Hofseth AB, Cui X, Wood PA, Windust A, Matesic LE, Pena EA, Chiuzan C, Singh NP, Nagarkatti M, Nagarkatti PS, Wargovich MJ, Hofseth LJ. 2008. American ginseng suppresses inflammation and DNA damage associated with mouse colitis. Carcinogenesis 29(12):2351-2359.
  • Kabalak AA, Soyal OB, Urfalioglu A, Saracoglu F, Gogus N. 2004. Menometrorrhagia and tachyarrhythmia after using oral and topical ginseng. J Womens Health (Larchmt ) 13(7):830-833
  • Kaneko H, Nakanishi K, Kuwashima K, Ikeda K. 2000. Effects of the long-term administration of red ginseng on working stress and changes of physiological parameters of workers. A study at a care hospital for the aged (ROUJIN BYOUIN). Therapeutic Research 21(5):1451-1463. [résumé]
  • Kang KS, Yamabe N, Kim HY, Okamoto T, Sei Y, Yokozawa T. 2007. Increase in the free radical scavenging activities of American ginseng by heat processing and its safety evaluation. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 113(2):225-232
  • Kawahara M, Kuroda Y. 2000. Molecular mechanism of neurodegeneration induced by Alzheimer’s beta-amyloid protein: channel formation and disruption of calcium homeostasis. Brain Research Bulletin 53:389-397
  • Kelly GS. 1999. Nutritional and botanical interventions to assist with the adaptation to stress. Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic 4(4):249-265
  • Kennedy D, Scholey A, Wesnes KA. 2000. Dose-dependent enhancement of cognitive performance in young volunteers by a single doses of ginseng. International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology 3(Suppl 1):S365
  • Kennedy DO, Haskell CF, Wesnes KA, Scholey AB. 2004. Improved cognitive performance in human volunteers following administration of guarana (Paullinia cupana) extract: comparison and interaction with Panax ginseng. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 79(3):401-411
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Drewery L, Marsh VR, Moore B, Ashton H. 2003. Electroencephalograph effects of single doses of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng in healthy young volunteers. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 75(3):701-709
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. 2001. Differential, dose dependent changes in cognitive performance following acute administration of a Ginkgo biloba/Panax ginseng combination to healthy young volunteers. Nutritional neuroscience 4(5):399-412
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. 2001. Dose dependent changes in cognitive performance and mood following acute administration of Ginseng to healthy young volunteers. Nutritional Neuroscience 4(4):295-310
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB, Wesnes KA. 2002. Modulation of cognition and mood following administration of single doses of Ginkgo biloba, ginseng, and a ginkgo/ginseng combination to healthy young adults. Physiology & Behavior 75(5):739-751
  • Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. 2003. Ginseng: potential for the enhancement of cognitive performance and mood. Pharmacology, Biochemistry and Behavior 75(3):687-700
  • Kiefer D, Pantuso T. 2003. Panax ginseng. American Family Physician 68(8):1539-1542
  • Kim C, Choi H, Kim CC, Kim JK, Kim MS. 1976. Influence of ginseng on mating behavior of male rats. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 4(2):163-168
  • Kim JH, Park CY, Lee SJ. 2006. Effects of sun ginseng on subjective quality of life in cancer patients: a double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot trial. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 31(4):331-334
  • Kitts DD, Wijewickreme AN, Hu C. 2000. Antioxidant properties of a North American ginseng extract. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry 203(1-2):1-10
  • Ko SR, Choi KJ, Uchida K, Suzuki Y. 2003. Enzymatic preparation of ginsenosides Rg2, Rh1, and F1 from protopanaxatriol-type ginseng saponin mixture. Planta Medica 69:285-286
  • Kulaputana O, Thanakomsirichot S, Anomasiri W. 2007. Ginseng supplementation does not change lactate threshold and physical performances in physically active Thai men. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand 90(6):1172-1179
  • Lee BM, Lee SK, Kim HS. 1998. Inhibition of oxidative DNA damage, 8-OHdG, and carbonyl contents in smokers treated with antioxidants (vitamin E, vitamin C, beta-carotene and red ginseng). Cancer letters 132(1-2):219-227
  • Li N, Liu B, Dluzen DE, Jin Y. 2007. Protective effects of ginsenoside Rg2 against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 111(3):458-463
  • Lieberman HR. 2001. The effects of ginseng, ephedrine, and caffeine on cognitive performance, mood and energy. Nutrition Reviews 59(4):91-102
  • Liu J, Burdette JE, Xu H, Gu C, van Breenmen RB, Bhat KP, Booth N, Constantinou AI, Pezzuto JM, Fong HH, Farnsworth NR, Bolton JL. 2001. Evaluation of estrogenic activity of plant extracts for the potential treatment of menopausal symptoms. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 49(5):2472-2479
  • Liu ZH, Hu HT, Feng GF, Zhao ZY, Mao NY. 2005. Protective effects of gastrodin on the cellular model of Alzheimer’s disease induced by Abeta25-35. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 36(4):537-540
  • Low Dog T. 2005. Menopause: a review of botanical dietary supplements. American Journal of Medicine 19:118 Suppl 12B:98-108
  • López MV, Cuadrado MP, Ruiz-Poveda OM, Del Fresno AM, Accame ME. 2007. Neuroprotective effect of individual ginsenosides on astrocytes primary culture. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1770(9):1308-1316
  • Mahady GB, Parrot J, Lee C, Yun GS, Dan A. 2003. Botanical dietary supplement use in peri- and postmenopausal women. Menopause 10(1):65-72
  • Mantle D, Lennard TWJ, Pickering AT. 2000. Therapeutic applications of medicinal plants in the treatment of breast cancer: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability. Adverse Drug Reaction Toxicology Review 19(3):2223-2240
  • Mantle D, Pickering AT, Perry AK. 2000. Medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of dementia: a review of their pharmacology, efficacy, and tolerability. CNS Drugs 13:201-213
  • McElhaney JE, Goel V, Toane B, Hooten J, Shan JJ. 2006. Efficacy of COLD-fX in the prevention of respiratory symptoms in community-dwelling adults: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine 12(2):153-157
  • McElhaney JE, Gravenstein S, Cole SK, Davidson E, O’neill D, Petitjean S, Rumble B, Shan JJ. 2004. A placebo-controlled trial of a proprietary extract of North American ginseng (CVT-E002) to prevent acute respiratory illness in institutionalized older adults. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 52(1):13-19 and the erratum in 52(5):857
  • Miller LG. 1998. Herbal medicinals: selected clinical considerations focusing on known or potential drug-herb interactions. Archives of Internal Medicine 158(20):2200-2211.
  • Mills E, Dugoua J, Perri D, Koren G. Herbal Medicines in Pregnancy and Lactation: An Evidence-Based Approach. London (UK): Taylor and Francis Medical; 2006.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2000. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone.
  • Mills S, Bone K. 2005. Principles and Practice of Phytotherapy. Toronto (ON): Churchill Livingstone.
  • Mitra SK, Chakraborti A, Bhattacharya SK. 1996. Neuropharmacological studies on Panax ginseng. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 34:41-47
  • Mkrtchyan A, Panosyan V, Panossian A, Wikman G, Wagner H. 2005. A phase I clinical study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang versus ginseng and valerian on the semen quality of healthy male subjects. Phytomedicine 12(6-7):403-409
  • Moerman DE. 1998. Native American Ethnobotany. Portland (OR): Timber Press.
  • Morris AC, Jacobs I, Klugerman A, McLellan TM. 1994. No ergogenic effect of ginseng extract ingestion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise 26(5)(Suppl.):S6
  • Morris AC, Jacobs I, McLellan TM, Klugerman A, Wang LC, Zamecnik J. 1996. No ergogenic effect of ginseng ingestion. International journal of sport nutrition 6(3):263-271
  • Murphy LL, Cadena RS, Chávez D, Ferraro JS. 1998. Effect of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) on male copulatory behavior in the rat. Physiology Behavior 64(4):445-450
  • Murphy LL, Lee TJ. 2002. Ginseng, sex behavior, and nitric oxide. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 962:372-377
  • NCCAM 2005: National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2005. Herbs at a glance: Asian Ginseng. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, National Institutes of Health. [Consulté le 4 juin 2015]. Disponible à: http://nccam.nih.gov/health/asianginseng/
  • Nocerino E, Amato M, Izzo AA. 2000. The aphrodisiac and adaptogenic properties of ginseng. Fitoterapia 71(Suppl 1):S1-S5
  • O’Hara M, Kiefer D, Farrell K, Kemper K. 1998. A review of 12 commonly used medicinal herbs. Archives of Family Medicine 7(6):523-536
  • Odani T, Tanizawa H, Takino Y. 1983. Studies on the absorption, distribution, excretion and metabolism of ginseng saponins. III. The absorption, distribution and excretion of ginsenoside Rb1 in the rat. Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin 31:1059-1066
  • Ohya T, Usui Y, Okamoto K, Inoue Y, Arii S, Iwai T. 2004. Management for fistula-in-ano with Ginseng and Tang-kuei Ten Combination. Pediatrics International 46(1):72-76
  • OMS 1999 : Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 1. Genève (CH): Organisation mondiale de la Santé; 1999.
  • OMS 2007 : Organisation mondiale de la Santé (OMS). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants, Volume 3. Genève (CHE): Organisation mondiale de la Santé.
  • Ott BR, Owens NJ. 1998. Complementary and alternative medicines for Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology 2:163-173
  • Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin RE, Basu TK. 2006. Immune Modulating Effects of Daily Supplementation of COLD-fX (a Proprietary Extract of North American Ginseng) in Healthy Adults. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition 39:162-167
  • Predy GN, Goel V, Lovlin RE, Donner A, Stitt L, Basu TK. 2005. Efficacy of an extract of North American ginseng containing poly-furanosyl-pyranosyl-saccharides for preventing upper respiratory tract infections: a randomized controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association 173(9):1043-1048
  • Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. 2006. Effects of Panax ginseng, consumed with and without glucose, on blood glucose levels and cognitive performance during sustained ‘mentally demanding’ tasks. Journal of Psychopharmacology 20(6):771-781
  • Reay JL, Kennedy DO, Scholey AB. 2006. The glycaemic effects of single doses of Panax ginseng in young healthy volunteers. British Journal of Nutrition 96(4):639-642
  • Rudakewich M, Ba F, Benishin CG. 2001. Neurotrophic and neuroprotective actions of ginsenosides Rb(1) and Rg(1). Planta Medica 67(6):533-537
  • Scaglione F, Cattaneo G, Alessandria M, Cogo R. 1996. Efficacy and safety of the standardized ginseng extract G115 for potentiating vaccination against common cold and/or influenza syndrome. Drugs Under Experimental and Clinical Research 22(2):65-72
  • Scaglione F, Weiser K, Alessandria M. 2001. Effects of the standardised ginseng extract G115 in patients with chronic bronchitis. Clinical Drug Investigation 21(1):41-45
  • Scholey AB, Kennedy DO. 2002. Acute, dose-dependent cognitive effects of Ginkgo biloba, Panax ginseng and their combination in healthy young volunteers: differential interactions with cognitive demand. Human Psychopharmacology 17(1):35-44
  • Schott N, Konietzny S, Raschka C. 2006. Red ginseng enhances the effectiveness of strength training in elderly: A randomized placebo-controlled double-blind trial. Schweizerische Zeitschrift fur GanzheitsMedizin 18(7-8):376-383.
  • Seida JK, Durec T, Kuhle S. North American (Panax quinquefolius) and Asian Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Preparations for Prevention of the Common Cold in Healthy Adults: A Systematic Review. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine 2011.
  • Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. 2003. Null and opposing effects of asian ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A Meyer) on acute glycemia: results of two acute dose escalation studies. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 22(6):524-532
  • Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. 2003. Variable effects of American ginseng: a batch of American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) with a depressed ginsenoside profile does not affect postprandial glycemia. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 57(2):243-248
  • Sievenpiper JL, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. 2004. Decreasing, null and increasing effects of eight popular types of ginseng on acute postprandial glycemic indices in healthy humans: the role of ginsenosides. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 23(3):248-258
  • Sievenpiper JL, Sung MK, Buono MD, Seung-Lee K, Nam KY, Arnason JT, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. 2006. Korean red ginseng rootlets decrease acute postprandial glycemia: results from sequential preparation- and dose-finding studies. Journal of the American College of Nutrition 25(2):100-107
  • Sinclaire S. 2000. Male infertility: nutritional and environmental considerations. Alternative Medicine Review: A Journal of Clinical Therapeutic 5(1):28-38
  • Sotaniemi EA, Haapakoski E, Rautio A. 1995. Ginseng therapy in non-insulin-dependent diabetic patients. Diabetes Care 18(10):1373-1375
  • Stavro PM, Woo M, Heim TF, Leiter LA, Vuksan V. 2005. North American ginseng exerts a neutral effect on blood pressure in individuals with hypertension. Hypertension 46(2):406-11
  • Stavro PM, Woo M, Leiter LA, Heim TF, Sievenpiper JL, Vuksan V. 2006. Long-term intake of North American ginseng has no effect on 24-hour blood pressure and renal function. Hypertension 47(4):791-796
  • Sun XB, Matsumoto T, Yamada H. 1994. Purification of immune complexes clearance enhancing polysaccharide from the leaves of Panax ginseng , and its biological activities. Phytomedicine 1:225-231
  • Sun Y, Zhu H, Zhu Y, Feng J, Chen Z, Li G, Zhang X, Zhang Z, Tang J, Shi M, Hao X, Han H. 2006. A randomized, prospective, multi-centre clinical trial of NP regimen (vinorelbine + cisplatin) plus Gensing Rg3 in the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients. Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer 9(3):254-258
  • Sung J, Han K-H, Zo J-H, Park H-J, Kim C-H, Oh B-H. 2000. Effects of red ginseng upon vascular endothelial function in patients with essential hypertension. American Journal of Chinese Medicine 28(2):205-216
  • Sünram-Lea SI, Birchall RJ, Wesnes KA, Petrini O. 2005. The effect of acute administration of 400 mg of Panax ginseng on cognitive performance and mood in healthy young volunteers. Current Topics in Nutraceutical Research 3(1):65-74
  • Takahashi M, Tokuyama S. 1998. Pharmacological and physiological effects of ginseng on actions induced by opioids and psychostimulants. Methods & Findings in Experimental & Clinical Pharmacology 20(1):77-84
  • Tawab MA, Bahr U, Karas M, Wurglics M, Schubert-Zsilavecz M. 2003. Degeneration of ginsenosides in humans after oral administration. Drug Metabolism and Disposition 31:1065-1071
  • Tilgner S. Herbal Medicine from the Heart of the Earth. Creswell (OR): Wise Acre Press; 1999.
  • Tode T, Kikuchi Y, Hirata J, Kita T, Nakata H, Nagata I. 1999. Effect of Korean red ginseng on psychological functions in patients with severe climacteric syndromes. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 67(3):169-174
  • Tohda C, Hashimoto I, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K. 2006. Metabolite 1 of protopanaxadiol-type saponins, an axonal regenerative factor, stimulates teneurin-2 linked by PI3-kinase cascade. Neuropsychopharmacology 31(6):1158-1164
  • Tohda C, Kuboyama T, Komatsu K. 2005. Search for natural products related to regeneration of the neuronal network. Neurosignals 14(1-2):34-45
  • Tohda C, Matsumoto N, Zou K, Meselhy MR, Komatsu K. 2004. Abeta(25-35)-induced memory impairment, axonal atrophy, and synaptic loss are ameliorated by M1, a metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type saponins. Neuropsychopharmacology 29:860-868
  • Tohda C, Matsumoto N, Zou K, Meselhy RM, Komatsu K. 2002. Axonal and dendritic extension by protopanaxadiol-type saponins from ginseng drugs in SK-N-SH cells. Japanese Journal of Pharmacology 90:254-262
  • Vaes LP, Chyka PA. 2000 Interactions of warfarin with garlic, ginger, ginkgo, or ginseng: nature of the evidence. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy 34(12):1478-1482
  • Vogel VJ. 1970. American Indian Medicine. Norman (OK): The University of Oklahoma Press
  • Vogler BK, Pittler MH, Ernst E. 1999. The efficacy of ginseng. A systematic review of randomized clinical trials. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 55(8):567-575
  • Vohra S, Johnston BC, Laycock KL, Midodzi WK, Dhunnoo I, Harris E, Baydala L. 2008. Safety and tolerability of North American ginseng extract in the treatment of pediatric upper respiratory tract infection: a phase II randomized, controlled trial of 2 dosing schedules. Pediatrics 122(2):e402-e410
  • Vuksan V, Sievenpiper JL, Wong J, Xu Z, Beljan-Zdravkovic U, Arnason JT, Assinewe V, Stavro MP, Jenkins AL, Leiter LA, Francis T. 2001. American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius L.) attenuates postprandial glycemia in a time-dependent but not dose-dependent manner in healthy individuals. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73(4):753-758
  • Vuksan V, Sung MK, Sievenpiper JL, Stavro PM, Jenkins AL, Buono MD, Lee KS, Leiter LA, Nam KY, Arnason JT, Choi M, Naeem A. 2008. Korean red ginseng (Panax ginseng) improves glucose and insulin regulation in well-controlled, type 2 diabetes: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of efficacy and safety. Nutrition, Metabolism & Cardiovascular Diseases 18(1):46-56
  • Wang CZ, Aung HH, Zhang B, Sun S, Li XL, He H, Xie JT, He TC, Du W, Yuan CS. 2008. Chemopreventive effects of heat-processed Panax quinquefolius root on human breast cancer cells. Anticancer Research 28(5A):2545-51
  • Wang CZ, Mehendale SR, Yuan C-S. 2007. Commonly used antioxidant botanicals: active constituents and their potential role in cardiovascular illness. The American Journal of Chinese Medicine 35(4):543-558
  • Wang M, Guilbert LJ, Li J, Wu Y, Pang P, Basu TK, Shan JJ. 2004. A proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium) enhances IL-2 and IFN-gamma productions in murine spleen cells induced by Con-A. International Immunopharmacology 4(2):311-315
  • Wang M, Guilbert LJ, Ling L, Li J, Wu Y, Xu S, Pang P, Shan JJ. 2001. Immunomodulating activity of CVT-E002, a proprietary extract from North American ginseng (Panax quinquefolium). Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 53(11):1515-23
  • Wargovich MJ. 2001. Colon cancer chemoprevention with ginseng and other botanicals. Journal of Korean Medical Science 16 Suppl:S81-S86
  • Washida D, Kitanaka S. 2003. Determination of polyacetylenes and ginsenosides in Panax species using high performance liquid chromatography. Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin 51(11):1314-1317
  • Weiss RF. 1998. Herbal Medicine. Gothenburg (SE), Beaconsfield (UK): AB Arcanum, Beaconsfield Publishers Ltd
  • Wen J. 2001. Species diversity, nomenclature, phylogeny, biogeography, and classification of the ginseng genus (Panax L., Araliaceae). In: Punja, ZK, editor. Utilization of biotechnological, genetic and cultural approaches for North American and Asian ginseng improvement. Proceedings of the International Ginseng Workshop 2001, 69.
  • Wichtl M, éditeur. Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceuticals: A Handbook for Practice on a Scientific Basis, 3e édition. Stuttgart (D): Medpharm GmbH Scientific Publishers; 2004.
  • Wiklund I, Karlberg J, Lund B. 1994. A double-blind comparison of the effect on quality of life of a combination of vital substances including standardized ginseng G115 and placebo. Current Therapeutic Research 55:32-42
  • Wiklund IK, Mattsson LA, Lindgren R, Limoni C. 1999. Effects of a standardized ginseng extract on quality of life and physiological parameters in symptomatic postmenopausal women: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Research 19(3):89-99
  • Williamson EM, Evans FJ, Wren RC. Potter’s New Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. Saffron Walden (UK): C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 1988.
  • Williamson EM. Potter’s Herbal Cyclopaedia: The Authoritative Reference work on Plants with a Known Medical Use. Saffron Walden (UK): The C.W. Daniel Company Limited; 2003.
  • Wittkowsky AK. 2005. A systematic review and inventory of supplement effects on warfarin and other anticoagulants. Thrombosis Research 117(1-2):81-86; discussion 113-115.
  • Wren RC. 1907. Potter’s Cyclopedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations. London (GB): Potter and Clark.
  • Xie JT, Mehendale SR, Wang A, Han AH, Wu JA, Osinski J, Yuan CS. 2004. American ginseng leaf: ginsenoside analysis and hypoglycemic activity. Pharmacology Research 49(2):113-117
  • Youdim KA, Joseph JA. 2001. A possible emerging role of phytochemicals in improving age-related neurological dysfunctions: a multiplicity of effects. Free Radical Biology and Medicine 30(6):583-594
  • Youl Kang H, Hwan Kim S, Jun Lee W, Byrne HK. 2002. Effects of ginseng ingestion on growth hormone, testosterone, cortisol, and insulin-like growth factor 1 responses to acute resistance exercise. Journal of strength and conditioning research / National Strength & Conditioning Association 16(2):179-183
  • Younus J, Collins A, Wang X, Saunders M, Manuel J, Freake C, Defen P. 2003. A double-blind placebo controlled pilot study to evaluate the effect of ginseng on fatigue and quality of life in adult chemo-naive cancer patients. Proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology 733
  • Yun TK, Choi SY, Yun HY. 2001. Epidemiological study on cancer prevention by ginseng: are all kinds of cancers preventable by ginseng? Journal of Korean Medical Science 16 Suppl:S19-S27
  • Yun TK, Choi SY. 1995. Preventive effect of ginseng intake against various human cancers: A case-control study on 1987 pairs. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 4:401-408
  • Zhao Y, Chen Z, Ma X. 1991. The preservation capacity of water and fertility of soilless cultivation substrate for Panax quinquefolium L. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 16(2):76-79, 125-126
  • Zhong Z, Qu Z, Wang N, Wang J, Xie Z, Zhang F, Zhang W, Lu Z. 2005. Protective effects of Panax notoginseng saponins against pathological lesion of cholinergic neuron in rat model with Alzheimer’ s disease. Zhong Yao Cai 28(2):119-122
  • Zhong ZG, Qu ZQ, Wang NP, Zhang FF, Zhang WY, Lu UP. 2005. Effects of the Panax notoginseng saponins on the level of synaptophysin protein in brain in rat model with lesion of Meynert. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi 30(12):913-915
  • Ziemba AW, Chmura J, Kaciuba-Uscilko H, Nazar K, Wisnik P, Gawronski W. 1999. Ginseng treatment improves psychomotor performance at rest and during graded exercise in young athletes. International Journal of Sport Nutrition 9(4):371-377

 

You cannot copy content of this page